Table of Contents
Why Did The North Want To End Slavery?
To protect civil rights and free labor for the country’s future, the North was determined to keep slavery in check in the South and stop it from spreading into the Western territories. To defend slavery, the South was ready to destroy the Union.
What Was The North’s View On Slavery?
The North utilized religion to decry slavery and label it a moral crime. The North also collaborated politically with abolitionists and politicians to end slavery.
Religious Denunciation of Slavery
The role of religion played a major part in shaping the perception of the North regarding slavery. Many religious leaders and churches opposed slavery, arguing that it was a moral sin that violated the values of justice, compassion, and humanity’s dignity. In a slant based on biblical teachings that stress the intrinsic worth of every person before God, they claimed that slavery contradicted these values and violated the human rights of all people.
In the Northern states, several religious groups and religions, such as the Quakers, Methodists, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians, were able to take a strong stand against slavery. Religious leaders, such as preachers and activists for abolition, were on stage to condemn the institution of slavery and advocate for its elimination. The religious admonishments not only sparked the public’s opposition to slavery but also served as moral support for the broad abolitionist movements that grew up in the North.
Political alliances with Abolitionists
The North saw the emergence of abolitionist movements that actively demanded prompt and total Emancipation for enslaved individuals. Abolitionist organizations, like The American Anti-Slavery Society, founded by William Lloyd Garrison, led the way in the fight for freedom. These groups hosted public events, distributed anti-slavery publications, and organized petitions against slavery.
Political leaders in the North adhered to abolitionist ideals, which led to the creation of the Republican Party in the 1850s. The political party integrated anti-slavery beliefs into its manifesto, arguing for the confinement of slavery within the current states and territories and working towards the ultimate abolishment of slavery. Persons such as Abraham Lincoln, who was elected president in 1860 and aspired to the power of the anti-slavery movements within the North,
Advocacy for Emancipation
The campaigning efforts in North Carolina culminated in decisive steps toward Emancipation. During the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, declaring that all enslaved individuals in Confederate-controlled territory would be set free. The Proclamation changed the war into an effort to end slavery and bolstered the resolve of abolitionists and the wider Northern populace to abolish the practice.
The unending campaign for Emancipation culminated in the adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1865. This historic constitutional amendment officially eliminated slavery across the United States and marked the end of a system that had endured for centuries.
Who Abolished Slavery In The North?
Five self-declared northern states decided to eliminate or at least reduce slavery. They included Pennsylvania from 1783 onward, New Hampshire and Massachusetts in 1783, Connecticut in 1784, and Rhode Island in 1784.
Pennsylvania was one of the states that were among the first to implement a gradual emancipation process and passed the Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery in 1780. The law stipulated that everyone born after its enactment would be free. However, they would be in indentured service to their owner until age. For those already in slavery in the past, the law gave them the possibility of freedom via a gradual process.
According to the Act, enslaved people who reached at least the age of 28 could be entitled to freedom, while those born before the law’s adoption would be enslaved for the rest of their lives. Although the law didn’t give immediate liberty to all those enslaved, it laid the foundation for the eventual ending of all slavery within the State. It also established a standard for the other Northern states that would follow.
New Hampshire and Massachusetts (1783)
New Hampshire and Massachusetts both adopted gradual emancipation strategies in 1783. For New Hampshire, the State’s constitution contained a clause stating that all people are equal and free, which laid the groundwork for the next emancipation effort. The State enacted laws that allowed the release of slave individuals and also provided legal avenues for their freedom.
In the same way, Massachusetts passed a law in 1783 that recognized the unlawfulness of enslaving people and declared slavery against the constitution of the State. The law didn’t provide immediate freedom but allowed enslaved people to seek their liberation through the courts. The law also provided liberty to those who had enlisted in the Continental Army during the American Revolution.
Connecticut and Rhode Island (1784)
Connecticut and Rhode Island were the next Northern states to adopt gradual Emancipation in 1784. In Connecticut, the State adopted a law prohibiting the importation of slaves and set a deadline for children born to slave mothers to be indentured to servitude until the age at which they were freed.
For Rhode Island, the gradual abolishment act of 1784 banned the entry of slaves into the State. The Act also stipulated that children born to mothers who were enslaved following the 1st of March 1784 were considered free for men and women when they reached an age between 21 and 18. Enslaved people already in the State would be in slavery for the rest of their lives, but they were granted certain legal protections and rights.
When did the North want to end slavery?
The Declaration of Independence not only declared the colonies free from Britain, however, but it also inspired Vermont to eliminate slavery as part of its state constitution. In 1804, all Northern states had passed laws to end the slavery system within their boundaries.
The Declaration of Independence and Inspiration for Abolition
The Declaration of Independence, adopted on July 4, 1776, was significant in American history. It boldly declared the colonies’ independence from British rule and laid out the basic principles of human rights and autonomy. The powerful language of the document in stating that it was a fact that “all men are created equal” and that they are endowed with “certain unalienable Rights” was a huge hit with people in the Northern states and spurred debates regarding the concept of slavery.
Vermont, a former independent republic, took inspiration from the Declaration of Independence when crafting the state constitution in 1777. In an incredibly bold step, Vermont abolished slavery within its borders, becoming the first State in the Thirteen Colonies to take such an uncompromising stand against the institution. The principles outlined in the Declaration of Independence played an important role in Vermont’s decision to end slavery. They set the stage for other Northern States to adopt it.
The Abolition of Slavery in the Northern States
Following the example of Vermont, Northern states began taking measures to eliminate slavery within their borders. Pennsylvania was one example. Pennsylvania adopted an Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery in 1780. This set the foundation for the eventual liberation of slaves born in the years following its adoption. New Hampshire and Massachusetts followed the same pattern in 1783, passing laws that acknowledged the unlawfulness of slavery and offered pathways to freedom for enslaved people.
Connecticut and Rhode Island joined the movement in 1784, implementing gradual emancipation laws that banned the importation of enslaved people and provided legal protections to slaves already in the country. New York, though slower in its progress, enacted an act in 1799 that permitted the gradual Emancipation of slaves born after the enactment. In 1804, the entire Northern States voted to ban the practice of slavery inside their boundaries. This was an important milestone in the struggle against establishing slavery in the region.
Was Slavery An Issue In The North?
Since the northern slaves utilized an approach of gradual abolition, slavery was in place in the North for much longer than people are aware. According to historical scholar James Gigantino, in his research on abolishing slavery within New Jersey, “slavery did not die after the Revolution; it sustained itself until the Civil War” (1).
The Process of Gradual Abolition
Contrary to the immediate abolishment of slavery in a few States, the Northern States adopted gradual emancipation strategies that gradually eliminated slavery as time passed. These policies did not guarantee immediate liberty for all enslaved individuals but instead established deadlines or conditions to allow their freedom. The method of gradual abolishment was different from state to state, which resulted in slavery continuing to exist throughout states in the North through the American Revolution.
States such as Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire adopted gradual emancipation policies after the Revolution. While they banned the importation of slaves and offered a path towards freedom for generations to come, those who were already in bonds were subject to the law that was slavery until they had met the conditions required for Emancipation, for example, reaching a certain age. This gradual process resulted in slavery being a constant presence in the North, although in declining amounts, even as the abolitionist movement grew.
Slavery’s Persistence Until the Civil War
The long-lasting existence of slavery throughout the North up until after the Civil War is a lesser-known aspect of American history. The State of slavery remained in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Rhode Island for many decades following the Revolution. According to the historian James Giga, the system of slavery continued to exist throughout these regions despite the idea that it would disappear at the dawn of the nation.
New Jersey, for example, could not completely abolish slavery before 1846, despite its closeness to the abolitionist movement within the North. In the State of New York, gradual abolishment meant that some slaves were held in bonds until 1827.
The continued existence of the practice of slavery within these Northern states illustrates the complexity of the abolitionist movement as well as the difficulties faced when trying to dismantle an institution that was deeply embedded within the economic and social structure of the nation.
What were the main reasons why the North wanted to end slavery?
The North had several compelling reasons to advocate for the abolition of slavery. Foremost among them were moral and ethical considerations. Abolitionists believed that slavery was a grave injustice and a violation of basic human rights, and they sought to end the institution on moral grounds.
Did economic factors play a role in the North’s desire to end slavery?
Yes, economic factors also influenced the Northern opposition to slavery. While some Northern businesses benefited from the trade and processing of slave-produced goods, the majority of the Northern economy was not directly tied to slave labor. Many Northern workers and entrepreneurs saw slavery as a threat to free labor and fair competition in the job market.
How did the growth of industry and urbanization in the North impact their stance on slavery?
The Northern states experienced significant industrialization and urbanization during the 19th century. As the economy shifted away from agrarian-based practices, the need for slave labor diminished. The North saw greater opportunities for free labor and industrial progress, which led to increased opposition to the continuation of slavery.
Were there political motivations behind the Northern push to end slavery?
Yes, political factors were at play as well. The North and South had increasingly divergent political interests, and the issue of slavery became a contentious point of debate. As the Northern states sought to limit the expansion of slavery into new territories, Southern states resisted such restrictions, ultimately leading to the outbreak of the Civil War.
Did religious beliefs influence the Northern stance on slavery?
Yes, religious convictions played a significant role in shaping the Northern anti-slavery sentiment. Many Northern religious leaders and communities condemned slavery as contrary to their beliefs and saw it as a sin that needed to be abolished. The Second Great Awakening, a religious revival movement during the early 19th century, also contributed to the rise of abolitionist sentiments.
How did the emergence of abolitionist movements impact the North’s position on slavery?
The rise of abolitionist movements in the North had a profound effect on public opinion. Abolitionists, through writings, speeches, and activism, raised awareness about the cruelties of slavery and called for its immediate end. Their efforts swayed public sentiment, leading to increased support for anti-slavery measures and eventually influencing the federal government’s actions in the lead-up to the Civil War.